Greek word as do-goodism

The old model was fading. In the later empire, more and more of the euergetism (one might render that Greek word as do-goodism) came from on high, from the emperor himself, with money that had flowed up to the throne coming back down to cities and local communities. The individual community had less ability to control, manage, and protect itself, and so this imperially appointed commissioner, the defensor, emerged as the de facto leader of the local society and a point of connection to the imperial government and its taxing authority. Many would feel themselves better off and few would notice the loss of effective self-government.

Somewhere at the bottom of the hierarchical pyramid of government, we find one officer whose role may still inspire some skepticism: the “tri-bune of pleasures” (tribunus voluptatum). Let’s call him the minister of public entertainment. The office was perhaps less than a century old, created when local generosity did not suffice to keep up a s

Theoderic more enlightened

We, of course, would like to see Theoderic more enlightened still. Then by a familiar rhetorical ploy he could be the idealized barbarian with his fresh ideas from outside the gray world of civilization. He was enlightened only up to a point: refusing to impose belief, and refusing to transgress the laws. He resembles Hadrian more than an American president—stern in modesty, but stern nonetheless. His gentleness was an ancient trait, soon to be rendered obsolete by Justinian’s more modern integration of religion and politics. Toleration has had to be relearned by many modern generations, and religious exclusion roars back repeatedly without much invitation.

Everything Theoderic did as monarch, I am tempted to say, embodied this Hadrianic moderation and calm. What if you did not know he was supposed to be different, supposed to be a “barbarian”? What if you knew he was born inside Roman boundaries (he probably was), and if you knew he had changed his name to Hadrianus?

To all Jews who live in Genoa

Those Jews of Genoa had addressed their ruler, as they would have done a century or two earlier no less frankly, to ask for permission to renovate and extend their religious property. Theoderic was cautious in his response.8

To all Jews who live in Genoa

When we are the object of requests, we always wish to give our assent to what is just. Equally, however, we want to make sure that our generosity does not give rise to fraud and trickery carried out under cover of law—especially in matters of religion.

Roman emperors always had to worry about the way they were being used. Most lawmaking consisted of responses to requests from interested parties, who did not always make the fullest and most frank representation of the facts that underlay these requests, and often the imperial blessing appeared to many as a support for the grasping, the greedy, and the well connected.

So we do not want people who are devoid of God’s grace to become too full of themsel

From Alican and Dilucu border gates to Karakale

Igdir is known for its borders with three countries. The border with Armenia is ver. close. Alican border gate connects Igdir with Erivan and Dilucu border gate also connects Igdir with Nakhichevan. When you arrive the places the settlement areas may be observed very clearly, yet the border gates can not be crossed due- to security reasons, and by continuing through Central Igdir, we also pass through Karakale. Just across Karakale, there is also Armenia. Karakale, which is located at a location in west of Igdir Plain on thc Armenian border, at a location, suitable for defense, is one of the oldest settlement areas in the region. It dates back to the Urartus, maybe older. The walls of the fort has been destroyed by earthquakes and today they are totally wrecked. When we see that how we were close to Armenia with the Serdarabat bridge on Araş river, we can not conceal or surprise. After we determine our borders in our minds, we depart for our hotel in central Igdir

Central Ig


The caves in Tuzdagi, which have been formed 60 miilion years above, remind us of Cappadoda. However, these are not natural caves, instead, these are old enterprises, which have been dug by the humans to extract salt. This place has been operated by many nations and States who hat lived in the region. During the Ottoman era, Tuzdagi region is the most important mining area for the satisfaction of the requirements of the region. To operate his place, they have even built bridges and passages, the remains of which have been found today.

In the entrance of the new enterprise, a gray fox looks towards us from the hills. We can not see but everyone gets excited. Since the salt meets humid air in the entrance of the mountain, it resembles foam. It is hard, white and bubbly. When we enter the cave, cool air, which smells of salt surrounds us. It is said that the air inside was good for the asthmatic people. Nowadays a company has taken over the operation of the Tuzluca caves.



Islamkoy is a former Armenian village, which was then called as Kafirkoy. It is possible to see the traces of Turkish Armenians everywhere in Igdir and environs.

The walls of the houses are as high as 1- 1.5 meters. The walls have been made of dried clay bricks and dried excrement of the animals. We see wool, left for drying on the surrounding rocks. On the lands in the left of the road, we see ponds, formed by the base water of Agri Mountain. At the same time, we learn that this place was a passage point for numerous species of birds, due to these lands.

Igdir and environs is a paradise for birds

Many of the birds, seen in Igdir travel from Caucasia to Russia and uses these lands. In particular, Ciyrikli village of Tuzluca County, is a secrets birds paradise, according to what is said. But we can not go there due to foul walker. I however, we can see, ruddy shelduck, crane and seagulls on our way. Seagulls? Seagulls of Lake Van… We therefore learn that

Balkan Tours 2020 2021

Balkan Peninsula has always been one of the attractive and mysterious destinations around the world. With Balkan Tours 2020 – 2021 you have the chance to breathe in the specific,  mysterious air on the Balkans. In addition, you can discover, enjoy and feel the modern and elite today and at the same time feel the mystic scent of history in the Balkan countries. These countries have the body of an old person but a very young and mature soul. Shortly, Balkan tours that you will experience in these geographical regions you will remember as your unique moment.

Here, briefly, you can learn some general characteristics of the countries involved in this Balkan entity.

Balkan Tours 2020 – 2021 “Greece”

“You should see the landscape of Greece. It would break your heart.”

Balkan Tours

Balkan tours – adventurous and relaxing journey

Balkan tours – reading books and watching films about Balkan countries is a good start. Thus you get some knowledge and a desire to see. This can make you dream about visiting these places and experiencing the culture. Balkan tours can be the door for an exciting, relaxing and adventurous journey through some of the most interesting places on the Balkans.

We are a tour operator based in Bulgaria. And one of the people who live on the Balkans. Believe us, it’s worth travelling around and learning more about the Balkan Peninsula. Even if you have already been to that mystique part of the world, you still have many things to discover and understand.

At first sight, the Balkans look like any other place on the world. But getting to know it better, travelling around, will take you deeper and deeper in its breathing, full of life organism. An organism composed of many cells like culture, hist

Ottoman Travel Bulgaria

Travel Ottoman Bulgaria to see, taste and feel a past not forgotten. No doubt it’s not forgotten. How could it be?! It’s 500 years of ‘common coexistence’. Coexistence not very peaceful most of the time. However, by far these are the most controversial times of Bulgarian history. These were the times when Bulgaria had its indisputable heroes.

”We are within time and time is within us, it changes us and we change it”

travel ottoman bulgaria vasil levski

Vasil Levski together with Hristo Botev and a lot other Bulgarians are our heroes. Heroes who fought for a

Nestinarstvo Bulgaria Tours

Wonder or strong belief

Is it a wonder or a strong belief? Do the nestinari (fire dancers) have special skills or energy? Where does this ritual come from? Why is it on UNESCO’s World Heritage List? These and may be different questions tease people’s imagination. Not only that of tourists’ but of Bulgarians as well. Nestinarstvo Bulgaria tours might have some of the answers: Do you want to try?!

There are many stories for where nestinarstvo originates from. The biggest group of supporters, though, believe that the fire dancing on live coals ritual comes from the Thracians. Why Thracians? The Thracian tribes worshipped their God Sun. Which is, when scattered in a circle the live coals symbolise exactly the Sun.

Like other rituals in Bulgaria, nestinarstvo has both Ch