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The Apostle Paul


A Journey of Faith and Conversion

Among the apostles, Paul stands out as an extraordinary traveler, navigating the challenges of the ancient world to spread the new faith. His remarkable journeys, marked by endurance and tenacity, played a pivotal role in the early Christian movement. This article explores the life and travels of Paul, born Saul, and the transformation that led him to become one of Christianity’s most influential figures.

Early Life and Background

Paul, originally known as Saul, was born in Tarsus, southern Turkey. After his conversion, he changed his name to Paul, influenced by converting Sergius Paulus. Described as a stocky man with a bald head and a grey, bushy beard, Paul studied Jewish law in Jerusalem under the renowned rabbi Gamaliel (Acts 22:3). His Roman citizenship, inherited from his parents, afforded him special rights and protections, playing a crucial role in his ministry Read more

Pioneer in Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics


Thales of Miletus

Thales of Miletus, a renowned figure in ancient Greece, made significant contributions to philosophy and mathematics. While some of his ideas were influenced by travels and foreign knowledge, Thales played a pivotal role in shaping the foundations of Greek mathematics and natural philosophy.

Thales’ Knowledge Gathering

Thales spent considerable time traveling and engaging in trade. It is believed that during his travels, he gathered knowledge and brought it back to the Greek world. One notable instance was his prediction of the eclipse in 585, likely influenced by Babylonian priests’ research.

Geometric Theories and Foreign Influences

Thales introduced geometric theories that had possible roots in Egypt. These theories became fundamental in Greek mathematics, including the bisecting of a circle by a diameter and properties of triangles. Thales’ mathematical insights, such as proportional sides in triangles,

Thales of Miletus


A Multifaceted Mind in Ancient Greece

Thales of Miletus, a prominent figure in ancient Greece around 585 B.C.E., stood out as a statesman, engineer, astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher. His diverse pursuits reflected the intellectual curiosity characteristic of academics in that era.

Thales’ Varied Expertise

Thales’ pursuits covered a wide range of disciplines The Apostle Paul. Regarded as the “only wise man” extending his speculations beyond the practical, he gained a reputation as a thinker who ventured into realms beyond immediate utility. Plato’s anecdote of Thales falling into a well while stargazing highlighted his commitment to celestial observations, sometimes perceived as imprudent.

Practical Applications of Celestial Observations

Contrary to some skepticism, Thales’ observation of the stars contributed practically to navigation. By measuring the stars of the

Galen’s Philosophical Insights


Pneuma: The Universal Spirit

Drawing from his philosophical studies, Galen concluded that various bodily functions were influenced by the Pneuma, or universal spirit. He envisioned the pneuma as a fine, spirit-like substance that flowed through the universe, organizing and controlling physical bodies.

Three Types of Spirit

Galen categorized the pneuma into three types of spirit:

Spiritus Vitalis (Life Spirit): Originating in the heart and flowing through the arteries.
Spiritus Animalis (Animal Spirit): Found in the brain and nerves Understanding Human Temperaments.
Spiritus Naturalis (Natural Spirit): Formed in the liver.
Title: Galenic Physiological Theory

Sustaining Life Process

While emphasizing the role of the pneuma, Galen also believed that the life process depended on food, converted into blood in the liver. This blood, originating from the liver, nourished essen

Understanding Human Temperaments


Galen’s Insights

Four Basic Human Temperaments

Building upon Hippocrates’ theory of the four humours, Galen proposed the concept of four basic human temperaments, each linked to the dominance of one of the humours. These temperaments were:

Sanguinicus (Blood Dominance): Cheerful and lively
Flegmaticus (Phlegm Dominance): Calm and tough
Melancholicus (Melancholy Dominance): Worrisome and gloomy
Cholericus (Choler Dominance): Energetic
Galen believed that one’s personality was closely connected to their physical makeup.

Galen’s Contributions to Physiology

Unraveling the Mysteries of Physiology

Galen significantly contributed to the development of human physiological science. In ancient times, the functions of the heart and blood vessels were mysterious. Earlier theories by Alcmaeon of Croton and Aristotle suggested connections between blood, sleep, and the brain. Galen debunked many of th

Doctor of Gladiators


Galen’s Medical Journey

Early Medical Journey

After initially studying philosophy, especially Aristotle, Galen shifted his focus to medicine at the age of seventeen. Traveling through Greece, Asia Minor, and Palestine, he honed his skills and became a doctor in Alexandria, a prominent medical center.

Return to Pergamum and Gymnasium Doctor

Around 159, at 28, Galen returned to Pergamum, his birthplace, and became the doctor at the local gymnasium attached to the sanctuary of Asklepios. Asklepios Galen’s Philosophical Insights, son of the sun god Apollo, was associated with healing.

Imperial Physician and Gladiators’ Care

Moving to the Empire’s capital, Galen became a renowned teacher of medicine and the personal physician to Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. He also tended to the gladiators, treating their wounds, which expanded his anatomical knowledge. This expe

Rise and Decline of Caria through History


Extent of Carian Territory

At its zenith, Caria’s territory stretched from present-day Lake Bafa in the north to Lake Köycegiz east of Marmaris in the Mugla province. Notable ancient cities like Heracleia, Alinda, and Alabanda were situated in the north, while Caunos marked the southernmost Carian territory, overlapping into Lycia. This area closely aligns with the modern administrative province of Mugla.

Surviving Invasions and Shifting Allegiances

Caria endured various invasions across Asia Minor without losing its distinct identity, albeit facing challenges. During the Persian dominance under Darius and Xerxes, Caria was integrated into the Persian Empire. Following Xerxes’ defeat by the Athenians and the rise of the Delian Confederacy Mystery of Ancient Caria, Carian cities came under Athenian influence. Subsequently, Spartan rule took hold after the Athenian defeat in 405 BC, lasting a brief decade u

Mystery of Ancient Caria


Origins of Caria

In ancient times, the coastal and inland regions of Asia Minor were organized into provinces with uncertain origins, shaped by indigenous populations and colonizing forces. Caria, situated in this enigmatic landscape, presents a historical puzzle with conflicting evidence Struggles in the Maccabean Kingdom. Herodotus suggests that the Carians hailed from the Greek Islands, under King Minos of Crete, serving as skilled seafarers and warriors. Thucydides provides an alternative account, describing them as pirates expelled by King Minos. Pausanias suggests a native Anatolian origin, intermingled with Cretan colonists.

Archaeological Perspective

Archaeological findings lean towards the view that the Carians were an indigenous people with a rich history. While external colonists likely arrived and integrated, introducing new ideas and skills, the core identity of the native Carians persisted. Hom

Struggles in the Maccabean Kingdom


Salome Alexandra’s Rule (76-67 B.C.

After the death of Alexander Jannaeus, his wife Salome Alexandra took charge of the Maccabean kingdom. Their son, John Hyrcanus II, served as the high priest. Their favorable stance toward the Pharisees fostered peace, allowing the system to function smoothly during Alexandra’s nine-year reign.

Power Struggle and Civil War

Following Alexandra’s death, a power struggle emerged between Hyrcanus and his younger brother, Aristobulus II, who gained support from the Sadducees Rise and Decline of Caria through History. Aristobulus initially triumphed, prompting Hyrcanus to seek refuge in Petra, the Nabataean capital, with the aid of Antipater, a wealthy Idumaean friend. Together, they returned to besiege Jerusalem.

Roman Intervention and the Maccabean Civil War’s End

The involvement of the Romans, led by Pompey, marked a turning poin

The Rise of the Parthians


Revolt and Formation of the Parthian State

In 255 B.C., Diodotus, the satrap of Bactria, rebelled against Seleucid rule, establishing an Indo-Greek kingdom in Afghanistan. Concurrently, the northeastern region of Iran witnessed a distinct development as the Parni, a nomadic tribe of uncertain Indo-European origin, led by chieftain Arsaces, revolted and established the Parthian state. Initially, the Parni may have had Scythian roots, hailing from Central Asia and sharing a nomadic lifestyle.

Early Parthian Leadership

Arsaces, falling in battle around 248 B.C. Jewish Sects and Antiochus’s Oppression, lent his name to the ruling dynasty. His brother Tiridates, reigning for thirty-seven years, played a crucial role in consolidating the new kingdom. Initially ruling from the mountains of Turkmenistan, Tiridates later established a new capital named Asaak or Arsak and crowned himself king. Reflecting the

Bulgaria trips


Fish Bread


A Ball part 6