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Jewish Sects and Antiochus’s Oppression


Emergence of Jewish Sects

At this juncture, the Jewish community divides into two major sects of the New Testament era: the Pharisees, representing the fundamentalist majority, and the Sadducees Roman Intervention and Antiochus IV’s Reign, embodying the liberal upper class. Jason, a Sadducee, secures the high priest’s position by surpassing his brother Onias III’s gift to Antiochus. Onias III, seen as pro-Ptolemaic, loses favor. Jason, once in power, attempts to win Antiochus’s favor further by renaming Jerusalem to Antiochia and constructing a gymnasium near the temple, which greatly offends devout Jews. Eventually, the disapproval leads to Jason’s exile, setting the stage for more upheaval.

Antiochus’s Actions and Egyptian Campaigns

Antiochus, concurrently, engages in battles in Egypt. His initial campaign (170) results in the complete conquest of Egypt. However,

Roman Intervention and Antiochus IV’s Reign


Antiochus’s Ambitions Unravel

Antiochus, having aligned with Philip solely for Egypt, sought to revive old Seleucid claims in Ionia and Thrace. To appease Rhodes, he ceded the Carian coastline. His eastern conquests, blinding his court to the state’s weaknesses, led to comparisons with Alexander. When he occupied a Thracian sliver, Rome, viewing it as a potential European invasion, declared war (192). Antiochus, pre-empting Rome The Rise of the Parthians, responded to an Aetolian League invitation, sending troops to Greece in the same year.

Roman Triumph and Seleucid Decline

Rome swiftly expelled Antiochus from Greece, securing a decisive victory at Magnesia (190). While Rome claimed no territory, Pergamun and Rhodes received Western Asia Minor. The Seleucid army’s destruction unraveled Antiochus’s life’s work, prompting Atropatene, Parthia, and Armenian states to reject Seleucid authori

Embracing Nature’s Challenges


The GOLDOSK Adventure

Crocuses Smiling Under the Rain!

Would you continue walking on muddy mountain paths even if dark rain-loaded clouds covered the sky, and a sharp, razor-like wind cut through you, releasing its cold raindrops into your clothes? Beyond the mountains, in nature’s embrace, we walk into the wind and rain, facing these challenging conditions.

Rain falls, the wind blows, sticky mud hinders our progress From a Sunday Stroll to Nature Enthusiasts, limiting our vision. Despite the harsh conditions, last Sunday, tens of nature enthusiasts gathered, led by our guide, GOLDOSK. We are soaked and chilled, yet we walk towards Barla with smiles on our faces and warmth inside. The wet sky and ground may pity us, but we don’t mind. We walk, talk, and yellow and white crocuses smile at us.

On the ground, raindrops gather, forming tiny murky brooks, splashing. Our diverse group mo

From a Sunday Stroll to Nature Enthusiasts


The GOLDOSK Journey

A delightful Sunday morning in the spring of 2010 marked the beginning of a new venture for a friend and me. We decided to embark on a healthy 2-kilometer walk towards the hills of Isparta. As we contemplated ways to make this activity more enjoyable and inclusive, the idea of turning it into a regular weekend event took root.

This simple decision evolved into the formation of a community of like-minded individuals aspiring to lead a healthy life intertwined with nature. The goal was not just to exercise but to explore and safeguard the natural wonders of our city. With more than 95 members and thousands of Facebook likes, the Lakeland Nature Sports and Hobby Club, also known as GOLDOSK, gained momentum. Our mission extended beyond Isparta, aiming to foster a culture of outdoor activities such as trekking, hiking, climbing, water sports, winter sports, photography, and music in Lakeland city and surrounding districts.

GOLDOSK quickly became

Qatar’s Journey


A Hub for Education and Shopping

Becoming a Center of Science…

The government of Qatar has put tremendous effort into transforming Doha into a prominent education center in the Middle East. The extraordinary ‘Education City’ spans an expansive 12,950 square meters in the capital, attracting students from 60 countries and hosting 3,000 elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as universities. The ‘Doha Debates Embracing Nature’s Challenges,’ a forum where influential political and academic figures from the Arab world discuss critical matters, is part of the ongoing initiative to establish the city as an education hub. Additionally, the Heritage Library makes a significant contribution, housing 51,000 books in various languages, along with 600 antique maps, 2,000 manuscripts, and 6,000 photographs, with the goal of becoming a premier research center in the Middle East.


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Turkish War part 5